Hsu, P. C., & Xiao, T. (2017). Differences in the Initiation and Development of the Madden–Julian Oscillation over the Indian Ocean Associated with Two Types of El Niño. Journal of Climate, 30(4), 1397-1415.
Differences in the Initiation and Development of the Madden–Julian Oscillation over the Indian Ocean Associated with Two Types of El Niño
PANG-CHI HSU AND TING XIAO
Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education/Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
(Manuscript received 25 April 2016, in final form 31 October 2016)
The influences of different types of Pacific warming, often classified as the eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) El Niño events, on Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) activity over the Indian Ocean were investigated. Accompanied by relatively unstable (stable) atmospheric stratification induced by enhanced (reduced) moisture and moist static energy (MSE) in the lower troposphere, strengthened (weakened) MJO convection was observed in the initiation and eastward-propagation stages during CP (EP) El Niño events. To examine the key processes resulting in the differences in low-level moistening and column MSE anomalies over the Indian Ocean associated with the two types of El Niño, the moisture and column MSE budget equations were diagnosed using the reanalysis dataset ERA-Interim. The results indicate that the enhanced horizontal advection in the CP El Niño years plays an important role in causing a larger moisture and MSE growth rate over the MJO initiation area during CP El Niño events than during EP El Niñoevents. The increases in horizontal moisture and MSE advection primarily result from advection by mean flow across the enhanced intraseasonal moisture and MSE gradient, as well as by intraseasonal circulation across the mean moisture and MSE gradient associated with the CP El Niño. In the eastward development stage, the enhanced preconditioning comes from positive moisture and MSE advection anomalies in the CP El Niño events. Meanwhile, the strengthened MJO-related convection over the central-eastern Indian Ocean is maintained by increased atmospheric radiative heating and surface latent heat flux during the CP El Niño compared to the EP El Niño events.